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phobias

overcoming phobias psychology

overcoming phobias psychology overcoming phobias psychology。Steps in overcoming phobias. 1: Getting used to speaking in front of strangers (A) First try going with a friend to a shop and ask for an item. (B) Once you can do this without feeling anxious, when with a friend, try asking a stranger for directions. (C) When you […]

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Preparedness of specific phobias

Many objects that are in the subject’s immediate environment when traumatic events occur do not acquire fearful properties. Subsequently, phobias are usually found in response to a limited set of all of the possible cues in the world. Observations such as these led Seligman to propose that certain stimuli are biologically ‘‘prepared’’ to become associated […]

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Genetic and Familial Factors of specific phobias

Genetic and Familial Factors First-degree relatives of people with specific phobias are more likely themselves to have a specific phobia providing evidence for the importance of either genetic or environmental family factors in the disorder. More specifically, a few twin studies demonstrated a genetic involvement in specific phobias but the importance of environmental factors was […]

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Somatic Symptoms of specific phobias

Somatic Symptoms When specific phobics are not confronting their feared object, they experience the least severe and debilitating anxiety disorder, generally demonstrating relatively normal levels of trait anxiety. Such subjective reports are supported by physiological assessment, which also demonstrates that specific phobics in chronic arousal are not different from normal controls. When confronting their feared […]

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specific phobias Cognitive Symptoms

specific phobias Cognitive Symptoms Studies of cognitive symptoms in specific phobics have not been very common, possibly because it has been assumed that any thoughts would naturally be related to the phobic object and because thoughts have not usually been considered etiologically important. Nevertheless, a few studies have asked specific phobics about their thoughts when […]

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specific phobias Clinical Features: Epidemiology

specific phobias Clinical Features: Epidemiology Mild fears of specific objects or situations are extremely common in the general population. Fears that are considered clinically severe are still relatively common compared to the other anxiety disorders. The National Comorbidity survey found a lifetime prevalence for specific phobias of approximately 11% in adults and the 6-month prevalence […]

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What is Phobias?

While specifi c phobias (dogs, the dark, lifts) are the most common psychiatric disorder of childhood, probably only a third of these cause psychosocial impairment. Nevertheless, most are readily treatable by a behavioural nurse or psychologist using desensitisation and graded exposure to the feared stimulus. Without treatment, symptoms may be persistent. Other phobias, including social […]

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Treatment efficacy: phobias

Roth and Fonagy  in their comprehensive review of anxiety disorders and ‘what works for whom?’ concluded: ‘There is little justification for using anything other than exposure treatments for specific phobias’. Undoubtedly, the most efficacy as demonstrated through randomized controlled treatment trials come from behaviour therapy using exposure and cognitive techniques. Such treatments can vary in […]

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Specific (isolated) phobias and diagnosis

These are circumscribed fears of specific objects or situations. Some community samples have shown an annual prevalence as high as 9% in the general population. Most phobias start in childhood, but situational phobias have a second peak of onset among people in their middle 20s. Particular types of phobias seem to aggregate in families, with […]

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How to treatment of phobias

Behavioural treatments The premise underpinning behavioural treatments of phobias involve exposure to the feared stimulus either directly (flooding) or in a series of hierarchical stages (systematic desensitization). These approaches may be augmented by teaching people skills such as relaxation or cognitive strategies to counter negative expectations and fear of catastrophic outcomes. However, the effects of […]

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