Mental health articles

OF mental health care and mentally ill

April, 2016

Developmental tasks of infancy in the third year

By the beginning of the third year the foundation is laid for the unique thinking and feeling individual that the toddler will become. Language is established, as are physical competence and mobility. Over this year children further develop a sense of themselves and their place within a network of relationships. They develop a range of […]

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Developmental tasks of infancy in the second year of life

The second year of life is marked by two major developmental achievements: the development of language and symbolic play, and increased mobility and independence. There is a consolidation of secure base behaviour and exploration seen towards the end of the first year and as the infant, now toddler, experiments with independence the foundation is laid […]

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Developmental tasks of infancy during the first year

During the first year of life the infant will grow and develop more rapidly, physically, emotionally and socially than during any other life period. The foundation is laid for language development and mobility that enables infants increasing independence as they explore the world and share their new experiences with key adults. While there is great […]

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Normal infant emotional development

Normal infant emotional development Infant research has provided considerable information about the infant’s innate capacities for social and environmental interaction from birth. The newborn baby has an amazing range of communication strategies. For example, newborns turn their heads in response to a familiar parental voice or smell, show a preference for face-shaped patterns over other […]

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the field of infant research

Close study of infant development has provided understanding of the innate capacities of infants and the quality of care needed to promote healthy development. Infant research examines the ability of infants to both perceive and communicate affective states, to differentiate their primary carer from others and to interact with them. Carers and infants establish patterns […]

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what is developmental psychology definition

what is developmental psychology definition Developmental psychology (or psychopathology) has emerged as an important field over the last 25 years and takes a multidisciplinary approach to development and the understanding of developmental problems. It focuses on both the effect of development on disorder and the ways in which disorder affects ongoing developmental processes (Cicchetti & […]

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john bowlby attachment theory

john bowlby attachment theory John Bowlby, a British psychoanalyst, is seen as the ‘father’ of attachment theory. He described the development of an attachment behavioural system that has the aim of maintaining the infant’s sense of security and safety. In his initial formulation of attachment theory, Bowlby argued that the innate capacity of infants to […]

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object relations theory definition

object relations theory definition Object relations theory refers to a group of analytical accounts beginning with the work of Klein and Riviero (1937), which moved away from Freud’s emphasis on drives and psychological defences towards an increasing interest in relationships. Later writers, such as Fairbairn (1952), came to see ‘object seeking’, the need to form […]

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Freud’s three psychosexual stages of development

Classical psychoanalytic theory provides an account of the development of the structure of the mind (that is, the id, ego and super-ego) and of infant developments through a series of psychosexual stages over the first five years of life. In Sigmund Freud’s (1922) original drive theory, the development of relationships to others (object relations) is […]

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Influences on the field of infant mental health

Influences on the field of infant mental health Understanding of early childhood development has been influenced by psychoanalytic theory, object relations theory, attachment theory and developmental psychology. Infant research has contributed to an understanding of the capacities of the newborn to interact with the environment and to organise the self and experiences in an active […]

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