Mental health articles

OF mental health care and mentally ill

August, 2016

Attachment and brain development

Attachment and brain development Sensitive care promotes growth and the development of self-regulation. Early brain development is promoted by secure attachment. Infants in well-regulated relationships that involve the sharing of positive affective states show optimal brain growth and development. From a neurodevelopmental point of view, the infant’s primary caretaker, usually the mother, and to a […]

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Clinical syndromes associated with trauma in infancy

Clinical syndromes associated with trauma in infancy Trauma can be broadly defined as experiences that threaten the individual’s psychological or physical well-being or physical existence and that overwhelm the individual’s coping mechanisms. Chronic or enduring stressors are likely to result in attempts at adaptation and will produce significant organisational change at both psychological and neurobiological […]

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Disruptive behaviour and aggression of toddler

Disruptive behaviour and aggression of toddler A common presentation in the toddler period is the child who is seen as ‘difficult to control’, with frequent and prolonged tantrums, aggressive outbursts (particularly when frustrated), poor impulse control and overactivity. These toddlers may be fussy eaters and poor sleepers. They may show disturbances of secure base behaviour, […]

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Regulatory disorders of infants

Regulatory disorders Regulatory disorders are characterised by the infant’s difficulties in regulating behaviour and physiological, sensory, attentional, motor or affective processes, and in organising a calm, alert or affectively positive state. Common difficulties involve feeding, sleeping and emotional control; for example, a toddler may be fearful or anxious. Parents may be concerned that their child […]

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Essential tasks of parenting in the toddler period

Essential tasks of parenting in the toddler period Parenting a toddler is a challenge to any parent. Parents who find the high demands but dependency of the baby enjoyable and rewarding are often nonplussed with the energy, determination and contrariness of the toddler. The common characteristics of the toddler are developmentally determined, not a factor […]

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Development of empathy in the toddler

Development of empathy in the toddler As the toddler’s internal sense of a loving protective parent grows he takes on the qualities that the mother or father has demonstrated and the infant has experienced. The toddler develops empathy, an understanding of how an experience is for the other, a reliable sense of right and wrong, […]

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Language and symbolic capacity of toddlers

From 18 months, most toddlers use a number of single words, although they may not be spoken clearly. They understand a lot of what is said to them, and start using two- to three-word sentences. Between two and three years of age the quantity of speech increases. At this age, toddlers can talk about events […]

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Emotional processing and control of toddler

Emotional processing and control There are two predominant anxieties of toddler years—separation anxiety and fear of disapproval (Lieberman, 1993). The toddler has to learn to satisfy curiosity and explore while remaining close enough to the parent to feel safe, and balance asserting his own will with maintaining the parent’s approval. As an intensely curious being […]

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Self-awareness and self-assertion in the toddler

Self-awareness and self-assertion in the toddler ‘Toddlers are coping for the first time with a lifelong existential dilemma: having to negotiate a balance between relying on others and doing their own thing’ . Stern  makes the cogent point that the essential issues of emotional development—trust, attachment, dependence, independence, control, autonomy, mastery, individuation and self-regulation are […]

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Infant oropharyngeal trauma

Infant oropharyngeal trauma Post-traumatic feeding disorder (PTFD) is diagnosed when food refusal follows trauma to the oropharynx or oesophagus, but it is not necessarily, or commonly, seen among groups of infants in whom it might be expected to occur, for example, infants with OA. This suggests that other factors, such as oro-motor dysfunction, hypersensitivity to […]

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